Internet Linking Roundup
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Internet Linking is exploding!
Internet linking is one of the fastest growing areas of our hobby, with hundreds of linked systems and tens of thousands of hams using Internet links around the world. Internet linking has come a long way from the early experiments of the 1990's, which involved a lot of manual intervention, to today's range of reliable, easy to use systems.
What sorts of systems are there?
There is a wide variety of linking systems in use. Some feature highly secure links, others feature access directly from your PC. Some systems offer DTMF control to radio users and many other features. Every system is different, and each has its following. In fact, one of the hardest things for new users of Internet linking to work out is what is fact, and what is uneducated opinion from people who have only used one or two systems, or have a strong preference for a particular system. This page is an attempt to portray each system in an objective light, and let the end user decide.
Internet linking systems range from shareware and commercial Internet telephony software connected to radios, right up to complete, specialised hardware/software linking systems with remote DTMF control and a host of other features. The sections below will look at each major system.
IPhone was, in many ways, the system that got Internet repeater linking off the ground and into the general amateur population. IPhone itself is a (now unsupported) shareware Internet telephony application which was used by amateurs as a linking medium. At one stage, there was even an attempt at securing IPhone from public access, through a companion application called RptrLink, which authenticated people against the QRZ database, before letting IPhone make the link.
IPhone offered both point to point and conference room capabilities. Because IPhone was an Internet telephony application, it also allowed direct PC access to the system. Radio links were VOX controlled, and required that a hardware VOX unit be added to the transmitter, if there wasn't already a VOX in the radio. While IPhone worked, the application was prone to instability, and the VOX required a but of tweaking.
IPhone is now considered obsolete, as it is no longer supported by Vocaltec, and the conference servers have been closed down. There are plenty of alternative systems for prospective link operators to choose from. I mentioned IPhone because of its historical significance, and the fact that it led to the development of the more specialised systems which follow.
Internet Radio Linking Project (IRLP) - http://www.irlp.net
IRLP was conceived in the late 1990's by David Cameron, VE7LTD, to overcome what he saw as the major deficiencies in IPhone, which were the instability of IPhone and its Windows operating system, the lack of security on IPhone based networks and the lack of end user control of the links themselves.
IRLP is designed as a secure, robust and very
flexible Internet linking system. Unlike most other systems, it
is designed to prevent direct access to linked systems from the
Internet. At the node level, PGP cryptographic techniques are
used by the nodes to authenticate each other. The only way to
access IRLP is via a connected radio gateway, or node as they are
known. IRLP connections are initiated by the end user by keying
DTMF commends from their radio. These commands allow control of
link connection and disconnection, as well as any other extra
facilities added by the local node owner. IRLP offers both point
to point and "reflector" (IRLP speak for a conference
room) connections. To maximise control of the radio, IRLP uses an
interface board between the computer and radio to pass COS, PTT
and DTMF signals. The V3 IRLP interface also supports 3
auxilliary outputs, which are available for the node owner's use (IRLP
controlled coffee pot anyone? :) ).
Unlike other Internet linking systems, IRLP runs under Linux, which gives it extreme stability. In fact, ISP and repeater problems are more common than node failures. The use of the Linux platform also offers a number of other benefits to node owners, such as automatic updates of both the operating system and IRLP software (no more downloading the latest and greatest, you already have it!), and a very high degree of customisation. Many IRLP node owners have written and shared scripts which do things from reporting whether a link is up or not, to a talking clock, to on demand weather beacons, random node callers, news broadcasts and parrot repeaters. There are even scripts which allow node owners who are on modems to dial their Internet connection if it goes down, by remote DTMF control! As for the IRLP software itself, it is constantly under development and there are frequent enhancements, which are released to the IRLP community via the automatic update mechanisms discussed above. I have developed experimental control scripts to allow node owners to choose from a wide array of codecs to suit a specific situation and allow users on remote nodes to trigger scripts via DTMF commands. Also, there is EchoIRLP, a package which enables an IRLP node to connect to EchoLink nodes. These are examples of the extreme flexibility available with IRLP.
For those prospective node owners nervous about taking the Linux plunge, there is excellent support from the IRLP installation team and the general community of over 1400 node owners. Everyone else need not worry about the Linux issue. Your sole interface with IRLP is your DTMF keypad - nothing could be simpler than that! :-)
Some people have labelled IRLP as a "secret society". Nothing could be further from the truth. It is true that IRLP node owners are asked to refrain from discussing control specifics while linked to another node, but the node numbers themselves are available for all to see at http://status.irlp.net, and it is up to each node owner whether they want to leave their system open access or add extra access codes. On a similar note, some claim that IRLP is closed source. This is only partly true. There are a handful of binaries in the system which are closed source (but have simple interfaces and/or are well documented). However, the majority of IRLP is written in bash shell scripts, which the node owner can directly read and modify.
SWLs can also get their taste of IRLP. There are streaming audio feeds of some of the reflector traffic on the Internet, which can be monitored using Winamp or your browser.
In summary. If you want to offer a secure, stable and flexible RF only link in your area, and don't mind learning a bit along the way, then IRLP is for you.
EchoLink - http://www.echolink.org/
iLINK was born in May 2001, when Graeme Barnes, M0CSH, released the first version of his Windows based Internet linking system, to provide a Windows based alternative to IRLP, with the added feature of direct connections from the Internet. iLINK was the predecessor to EchoLink.
In mid 2002, a new client program, EchoLink. written by K1RFD, arrived on the scene. Written to be compatible with iLINK, it offered several features which the original iLINK software didn't have, and EchoLink rapidly became popular. EchoLink also offered a simple means to interface a radio to the software, using a home brew interface similar to those used for PSK-31, SSTV and other computer generated modes, making gateway operation more attractive.
Some weeks after EchoLink's arrival, the iLINK and EchoLink server networks were split. While this split was intended to give people choice in whether they wanted to interace with some of the extra EchoLink features, the net result was that the iLINK users moved to EchoLink, and iLINK has very little activity. As of October 2002, iLINK appears to have gone to a closed commercial model of distribution.
In recent times, several amateurs have started work with the EchoLink protocols and have written some open source implementations of EchoLink conference server and client software. The conference server, called thebridge, though very new has proved to be extremely robust. It runs on almost any Unix like system, as well as Windows.
EchoLink has a couple of things in common with IRLP. Firstly, it allows radio connected nodes to be controlled by DTMF commands. Secondly, it uses a dedicated hardware interface board between the radio and the computer. However, at this time, the hardware control is one one way (PTT only). The received audio is still sampled by a VOX routine in the EchoLink software. Unlike the original iLINK sysop software, EchoLink also supports hardware COS detection (like IRLP) and simple PSK-31 style radio interfaces. More recently, a Linux client, EchoLinux, has been written, making EchoLink the first cross platform linking system.
EchoLink also supports both point to point and conference connections. There are access control settings which allow the user to control whether repeaters, links, PC based users or conferences are allowed to be connected to their system, or any combination of the above. EchoLink also supports access control by callsign prefix or user defined allow and deny lists. Within limits imposed by access control settings at each end, computer based users can call other computer based users, or they can call RF links and get out on air. Similarly, RF users can key in a computer user's index number and call them from the mobile. The computer interface is, for the most part, simple and well laid out, and offers very good audio quality.
On the security front, when a new user
registers on the EchoLink network for the first time, they are
denied access until their callsign is verified as being
legitimate. Once verification is successful, then the user is
issued an index number, and can log into their account from other
PCs using their index number and password. There has been debate
in the amateur community about the degree of authentication
deemed necessary (and whether the above is sufficient) for
computer access to linked systems. There have been a number of
improvements to the underlying security mechanism, during the life of
EchoLink's computer access is a mixed blessing. On one hand, it allows one to experience Internet linking without having to setup a gateway in their local area. However, I also find it annoying being called by other computer based users and getting interrupted. When I was using iLINK, I used to only run it to make a call. Now, I run an EchoLink (actually EchoIRLP) gateway, so callers can try their luck on the radio here.
EchoLink doesn't support SWLs
(except on scanners
within range of a gateway), but a number of node and conference owners
have setup streaming audio feeds for SWLs to enjoy.
EchoLink, like IRLP, supports sysop installed
scripts, which allow the functionality of EchoLink to be extended in
any way. The limitation is usually the imagination of the
EchoLink community. There are a large number of scripts available
for sysops to install.
In summary, EchoLink offers a relatively simple way to setup an Internet link, with support for direct connections, as well as DTMF controlled RF links. I have been running EchoLink as an RF gateway for some time. It is a well behaved and stable system with good audio quality, and a good interface for both PC based and RF users. EchoLink is also under active development by both the original author and open source developers, and is the first system to support multiple platforms (currently, Windows, Macintosh, Linux and Java). EchoLink can also be supported by IRLP nodes, using the EchoIRLP add-on scripts for IRLP. The new conference server software gives EchoLink the same scalability as IRLP reflectors, enabling large nets (limited only by available bandwidth) to take place on the system.
eQSO - http://www.eqso.net
eQSO was written in 2001 to fill the void left by the demise of the IPhone conference servers. Formerly known as the M0ZPD Internet Gateway, it was renamed to eQSO in early 2002.
eQSO is quite different to IRLP and iLINK, and is based around the IPhone style conference room operation. eQSO only offers conference room facilities, and there is no end user DTMF control. Like IPhone (and iLINK), direct PC access to the eQSO servers is permitted. There is also a companion application that allows the user to browse the list of available servers so they can choose a conference room of interest.
eQSO offers the widest range of options for interfacing to a radio, from plain VOX right through to full hardware PTT and COS interfacing. The VOX in eQSO is very well designed, with independent threshold and "quiet" level settings, which enable it to be easily configured to minimise the risk of false triggering, while preventing dropouts between words. Once setup, the VOX is surprisingly reliable, and its easy to get a link up. The audio quality of eQSO is not as good as iLINK or IRLP - often it has a soft "ticking" sound. However, it tends to use less bandwidth than the other systems, so it is a good choice where phone lines are poor.
Like iLINK, eQSO's computer interface is easy to use. The Linking version also offers courtesy tone and Morse ID as well, with a range of checkboxes to control the applications behaviour.
eQSO has no authentication mechanisms (though I
believe this is changing), and it,
like IPhone, relies solely on the "honour system". SWLs
are allowed to sit on conferences, and there are conferences
without RF links, to enable hams and SWLs to interact. However,
despite the lack of authentication, there are mechanisms for
server owners to kick off unruly users.
In addition to eQSO, there is now eQSOx, which is a project to create an
eQSO server and an eQSO RF linking client for Linux. The server
is now available for download.
Because all of the components of eQSO are available for download, it is quite easy to setup separate eQSO networks for non amateur applications. An interesting example of this is the PMR466 eQSO network, which uses a modified version of eQSO and a dedicated server to provide linking for PMR466 and other unlicenced radio users. For more info on this one, see http://www.466user.co.uk
The conference nature of eQSO makes its computer access mode less "intrusive" than that of iLINK, and you can easily sit on the side and monitor a QSO. This makes it especially suitable for monitoring.
In summary, eQSO is an easy to setup and pleasant to use conferencing application. Good for distributed nets where the RF gateways are attended, as well as for ad-hoc and temporary links.
Vertex Standard (Yaesu) WIRES-II - http://www.vxstd.com/en/wiresinfo-en/
WIRES was the first commercially built system
amateur use, initially released in 2002. Like IRLP and EchoLink,
WIRES-II uses DTMF signalling to control the links between nodes, and
WIRES-II, like IRLP, is designed for access only via a connected RF
gateway. There is no direct PC access to the WIRES-II
WIRES-II offers a much broader range of calling
options than any other system. Firstly, there are two basic modes
of operation. SRG (Sister Repeater group) is a mode where a
closed group of up to 10 WIRES-II nodes can call each other using a
single DTMF keypress. In addition, SRG operation can be "locked",
which means that the link stays up until it's either disconnected or
times out; or "unlocked", which means that the DTMF digit must be
pressed to activate the link every time PTT is pressed. This
gives unprecedented flexibility, especially in emergency situations, or
for passing short messages between SRG members. Being the only
WIRES-II node in VK, and also with an open connection policy for all
attached VoIP networks, SRG hasn't been tested.
The other mode is FRG (Friends Repeater Group).
In FRG mode, any WIRES-II node can call any other WIRES-II node using a
6 digit code, much like with IRLP, except that group calling options
are available - one call can link to multiple nodes with the one
call. In addition, WIRES-II offers "Round-Table QSO rooms", which
are basically conference servers for multiple nodes to connect
Installing WIRES-II is quite simple, but the process
to get to installation is a bit more involved than with the other
systems. WIRES-II arrives in the form of a HRI-100 interface and
a CD with the base version of the WIRES-II software. Before you
can connect to the network, or even install the provided software, you
must obtain a node ID from Vertex Standard by filling in the enclosed
application form and mailing or faxing it to Vertex Standard.
When your node ID arrives, you're ready to install. The actual
installation is easy. The required system is a P200 or better
running Windows 98 or later (Windows 2000/XP/2003 recommended) with
64MB (OS dependent) RAM. The system also should be dedicated to
WIRES-II for privacy and security reasons, as Vertex Standard reserve
the right to log in remotely and make any necessary changes to the
software. I'd recommend at least a P3-500 with 128M RAM running
Windows 2000, though I've had excellent results with a fast (virtual)
machine running Windows 98SE and 96M RAM. Hardware installation
consists of connecting the HRI-100 interface to a serial port on the PC
and 13.8V DC for power, and making an interface cable to connect the
HRI-100 to your radio or repeater controller. The HRI-100
supports both positive and negative going COS and PTT polarity, as well
as adjustable attenuation for Tx and Rx audio (all software selectable
from the WIRES-II application), which means it should interface to just
On air, WIRES-II in FRG mode is quite straightforward
to use. Just enter #nnnnD where nnnn is the node or conference
number you wish to call, then wait for the prompt (tone or voice) to
tell you you're connected. Voice quality isn't as natural as for
the other systems, and it has a slight "metallic" sound. It seems
as though there's somewhat more processing and filtering done by the
WIRES-II software, as well as more aggressive compression of the speech
data (codec is not known). However, the audio is still quite
acceptable and reasonably easy to copy.
WIRES-II doesn't seem to have a scripting or other
APIs for third parties to add onto the system. Also, it is not
possible to get status information out of the system at the time of
writing. This makes interfacing to complex systems and third
party tools very difficult. WIRES-II works best on a dedicated
node, where it will operate flawlessly.
Speaking of reliability, I have become rather cynical
about the quality of commercially produced software in recent years,
but the WIRES-II application has proven to be very robust and free of
the quirks and minor bugs that often plague commercially distributed
software. Definitely top marks to the Vertex Standard programmers
and QA team. Even on my Windows 98 setup, the system stays up for
weeks to months (usually an unrelated problem like a UPS shutdown
limits the uptime, rather than OS/application failure), and I can't
recall a single instance where the WIRES-II application itself
failed. The quality is up there with the best of VoIP
systems. Also, the software is regularly updated, with updates
being released through the WIRES-II site on the web. The download
site is password protected, so only node owners are able to access the
In summary, WIRES-II is a robust, easy to setup and
commercially supported RF only linking system for amateur VoIP
links. WIRES-II is excellent if you have a group of repeaters or
links that need to stay in constant touch, without flooding each other
with traffic, or if you want to provide basic VoIP connectivity to the
world using a simple to operate Windows based setup.
There are a number of linking systems available to the amateur these days. Each system serves a slightly different purpose - the question of which one is "better" is best left to the person installing the system. However, I will add a few comments. Technically, IRLP is the most sophisticated system, and there has also been a lot of work done in defining what makes a good IRLP node (not only the system, but how one should interface the radio for best results). The support networks of the other systems would do well to follow IRLP installation standards, as they are basically good engineering practice, and will improve the useability of _any_ of the systems discussed here. In other words, a system designed to meet the IRLP recommended standards will work well on EchoLink or eQSO. The overall quality of a VoIP linking system is as much dependent on the design and implementation of the PC-radio interface as the linking software itself. All systems would do well to encourage best practices for the implementation of RF links. This, much more than the system used, contributes to the overall satisfaction of using a linked system.
Because IRLP and WIRES-II are true "wormhole" systems, a lot of Government regulatory bodies are somewhat more comfortable with it, and it may be easier to get an IRLP or WIRES-II node approved for unattended operation, or at all. However, in countries where Internet linking is _not_ allowed, or is heavily restricted, EchoLink or eQSO can still be used from one's PC. One big deficiency with the current generation of PC based systems (with the exception of EchoLink) is they are not cross platform, so only Windows users can access them via their PC. This doesn't matter to RF users, and has no effect at all on IRLP or WIRES-II, since these systems only allow RF access.
Hopefully by this stage, you're now in a better
position to decide which system is for you! :)
and Hardware cost (for connecting a single node)
(including CD and suggested donation)
- 100 (depending on interface used)
- 100 (depending on interface used)
- $180 (selection of online supplier quotes)
to multiple nodes (w/o conference server)
(Special version only)
(FreeBSD port planned)
(Linux, Mac, Java 3rd party ports)
Linux (server only, gateway daemon port planned)
(ADPCM) V.good (GSM)
interface / API
(bash shell script/Linux)
of ports required for firewall configuration (TCP/UDP)
of greatest popularity
Access (other than local scanner users or streaming audio from selected
For the record...
I have been involved in Internet radio linking
since early 2001, when I started using IPhone. In June 2001, I
installed the first IRLP node (node 630 - now known as 6300) in
and followed that up with my development/promotional system, node 639
(6390). I started using iLINK as a PC based user in June 2001, and also
EchoLink RF gateway, node 22497 (VK3JED-L). I have also been actively
following eQSO, and have had an experimental eQSO RF gateway
running here from time to time. In 2004, I converted EchoLink to
EchoIRLP (VK3RTL-R, node 1046), and added WIRES-II (node 4114) . The
whole linking system is
standardised here (to IRLP V2.01/V3 interconnect specs with active low
COS/PTT) I can currently support linking on 6m, 2m
I'm actively involved in IRLP software development and EchoLink software testing, and am finding ways to push the capabilities of each system. As of 2003, I am one of the core developers of the EchoIRLP system, which is a project to create a dual system (IRLP/EchoLink) node.
The systems used for testing are as follows:
IRLP/EchoIRLP - P200 running IRLP standard Red Hat
Linux 9.0. 128 MB RAM, 4GB HDD, SB16 PnP soundcard. Fedora Core 2
test system available on a PII 266 laptop.
iLINK, EchoLink and eQSO - Athalon XP 1600+ running
Windows 2000. 512M RAM, 40GB HDD, SB Live! 256 soundcard and AC-97
chipset. (up to 2003), PII 266 laptop or P4 2.8 GHz running
Windows 2000 under VMware on Red Hat 9 (2004 onwards)
WIRES-II - Windows 98 running under VMware on a P4
2.8 GHz system. VMware configured for 96M RAM and 2GB virtual
thebridge EchoLink compatible conference server software has been tested on several Linux and Windows machines around the world *VK3JED* conference now runs thebridge in a production capacity on a Debian Linux system.